Comoros Recent History

The Comoros archipelago, located between Madagascar and the African continent, is made up of 4 main islands: Mayotte, Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comora, and a series of other small islands, all of volcanic origin.

In 1843 the French took possession of the island of Mayotte and in 1886 proclaimed their protectorate over the whole archipelago, declaring it a French colony in 1912. Two years later the islands were joined to Madagascar. Until 1950 they remained employed by him. Then they became “overseas territory” with a certain administrative and financial autonomy; they had representation in the National Assembly, in the Senate and in the Council of the French Community.

According to Abbreviationfinder, with the colonization there was development and progress in all sectors, from agriculture to industry, from fishing to cattle breeding and the population also gradually increased.

In 1961 the internal autonomy of the archipelago was complete. In 1974, with a popular referendum, independence was proclaimed and in 1975, on July 6, the Comoros became an independent Republic, with the capital Moroni, located on the Grande Comora, and as such became part of the United Nations. Mayotte, however, refusing independence, remained with the “status” of territorial collectivity, under French sovereignty (1976).

In 1975 an international airport was inaugurated in Hahaya, Grande Comora, which was added to the other two already existing.

In the same year, the President of the Republic, Ahmed Abdallah, was dismissed from office by Ali Soilih, whose government lasted until May 13, 1978, when a group of mercenaries overthrew him, bringing Abdallah back to the presidency.

Comoros Recent History

He suppressed all secular-socialist structures in Soilih, tending to modernize the country, and established a dictatorial regime which, of course, provoked the strongest opposition. And on November 27, 1989 Abdallah was assassinated.

In March 1990 Said Mohamed Djohar was elected president and immediately established a democratic government. Relations with France remained always excellent but the question of Mayotte, which the Republic of Comoros claimed as belonging to its community, remained to be resolved. And this situation caused a great discontent that resulted in some coups in 1990, 1991 and 1992.

In June 1992 a new presidential constitution was launched and legislative elections were held in November. However, they highlighted some irregularities which had to be repeated in December 1993 and assigned the victory to the President’s party, that is, to the “Rassemblement pour la Democratie et le Renoveau”. But the order did not last long. In September 1995 another coup overthrew Djohar, but the executioners, European mercenaries, were forced to surrender by the military. A provisional government was formed and new elections were held in March 1996.

The victory went to M. Taki Abdoulkarim, leader of the National Union for Democracy in the Comoros. In the following October, a new Constitution was approved by referendum which, among other things, established Islam as the official religion. Also in that year, in December, the legislative elections were won by the president’s party.

In the summer of 1997 separatist riots took place on the islands of Anjouan and Moheli which declared themselves independent. In November 1998 Taki Abdoulkarim died and was succeeded “interim” by M. Ben Said Massonde. On 30 April 1999, Colonel A. Assoumani took power again with a coup.