The Egyptian population, according to the census of February 1927, ascended to 14,217,864 residents, of which 40,000 in round numbers are nomadic Bedouins living in the desert areas that flank the Nile valley. Compared to the total extension of the territory, the density would be only 14 residents per sq.km.; if we take into account only the cultivated area, it would rise to 404 residents per sq. km, higher than that of all the Italian provinces, with the exception of Milan, Naples and Genoa.
In the last century, that is, dating from the coming to power of Moḥammed-‛Alī, the growth of the population has been extraordinary. A calculation made during the French occupation gave for the population of Egypt, at the beginning of the century. XIX, the figure of 2,460,200 residents and it would remain so for twenty years. An estimate from 1846 raises the figure to 4,476,440 residents. The first regular census took place at the time of the English occupation (1882); gave 6,813,919 residents The very sensitive progress that occurred in the previous 60 years, causing almost a tripling, continued after the English occupation, so the census of 1897 gave a population of 9,734,405 residents, Which rose to 11,287,359 in 1907 and finally to 14,217,864 in 1927. Thus from 1882 to today the population would have more than doubled, whereas the Italian one in the same period only increased by about 1/3. This increase is given almost exclusively by the surplus of births over deaths which in recent years has been around the annual figure of 250,000, since the birth rate reaches the high proportion of 43.3 ‰ (26.2 ‰ in Italy in 1929), which is contrasted by a still high mortality of 24.6% (15.4% in Italy). The difference, ie the surplus of births, amounts to 18.7 ‰, while in Italy it is about half (10.4 ‰). Migratory movements do not contribute to altering this rate of growth: in fact, nothing can be considered emigration and immigration of very little importance; the census of 1882 had 90,886 foreigners present, that of 1897 112,974, that of 1907 231,139, which fell back to 205,149 in 1917. But the increases are due more to the surplus of births, even for foreigners, than to new immigration. Among the foreign colonies domiciled in Egypt the most numerous are: the Greek, which with 56,731 registered in 1917 represented 27.6% of the entire foreign population, and the Italian, which with 40,198 registered it represented 15.9%; then the Turkish with 30,797 (15.0%). They were followed by the British, largely made up of Maltese, with 24,354 (11.8%) and the French with 21,270 (10.3%). then the Turkish with 30,797 (15.0%). They were followed by the British, largely made up of Maltese, with 24,354 (11.8%) and the French with 21,270 (10.3%). then the Turkish with 30,797 (15.0%). They were followed by the British, largely made up of Maltese, with 24,354 (11.8%) and the French with 21,270 (10.3%).
According to Vaultedwatches, the Italian colony dates back to the first decades of the century. XIX, when officials, professionals, traders, artisans were called there – also driven by political reasons – in the period of the Risorgimento and by the new impulse given to Egyptian life by Mohammed ‛Alī and his successors. The British occupation did not stop the increase of Italians, mainly due to the surplus of those born, so the number rose to 24,454 in 1897, to 34,926 in 1907, to 40,198 in 1917. The consular census of Italians abroad brought the number of regnicles established in Egypt in mid-1927 to 49,107, of which 33,457 were born in the country where, by virtue of the capitulations, they retained their Italian citizenship. After that of Tunisia, the colony in Egypt is the largest Italian colony on the African continent,
The religion of the overwhelming majority of the indigenous population is Muslim; only a part of the residents of some urban centers, especially of Upper Egypt, has preserved the ancient Monophysite Christian faith. According to the 1927 census, the total Egyptian population was religiously divided as follows: 12,969,260 Muslims, 946,393 Coptic Christians, 52,777 Orthodox Greeks, 116,660 Catholics, 66,080 Protestants, 63,550 Israelites and 3,144 of other religions. The Orthodox are almost exclusively those of Greek nationality, the Catholics are especially Italian, Maltese, French; the Protestants are English and German; the Israelites belong partly to the various European colonies, including the Italian and partly to the indigenous population.