Egypt Religion Part III

The center of the wolf cult was Licopolis (Asyūṭ) under the bellicose name Wepiew-w’q̂jwe “Outrider”, because his image marched at the head of the militias. But next to this “Wolf of Upper Egypt” (eg. zê’eb as in Semitic dhi’b) there is another one from Lower Egypt, which we do not know where to place; in later times a Licopoli also existed in the province of Sebennito. The god Anubis would appear to be a dog, although the Egyptian name A’nûpew is the same as the Ethiopian u̯ alpu̯ ulûp “jackal”. He is always represented lying, so they say it: “What is on his belly”. Originally the main seat of his cult was the XVII name of Upper Egypt, which has precisely preserved the image of him as an emblem; the capital was called Cinopoli (el-Qeis). From there it passed, already in the VI dynasty, in the near XVIII. In Rifa, just south of Asyūṭ, he was “Lord of the mouth of the cave” and most likely also in Abido Ḥentamentêje “First of Westerners”, he was originally a dog or jackal god. Anubis is called precisely: “Cape of the western high ground”. In Turah, according to all appearances, the Anubis of Śepe ‘must be located. Also in el-Gīzah there was a holy place called Re-śes’ew “Mouth of the caves” with which the falcon Zôker is related; this could have replaced a dog, to which the funerary character taken from the god of Memphis would be better suited. A goose is the goddess Śerwe, as the ideogram of the name shows; but we know nothing else.

According to Clothingexpress, the teal seems to be the god Gêbb, who for unknown reasons became the god of the earth. The capital of the twenty-first Egyptian province is called Śemn-ḥûr “Goose of Hor” (Kafr-‛Ammār) certainly in relation to a local cult. The same animal and the swallow are worshiped in Thebes. Lord of the city of Letopoli is the blind shrew ‛Am‛īmew, who also bears the name Mḫentenjḡrte” Without eyes “. As the water shrew god, Ejfêfe, he is identified with Hor. Sacred was the bull to Ermonti and in the next Tuphium where a white one, it seems, was called Bôġew “Fertilizer” (Greek Buchis); another, Ḥa’pe “Corridore” (Greek ῟Ακις, v. apis), was at Memphis and in the third name of Lower Egypt; a third, Mrewêre (Greek Μνεῦις), in Heliopolis, all famous. A similar cult is testified to the name VI of the Delta, “The bull of the mountain” (Chois); in the X, “The black bull” (Athparmi); in the eleventh, Ḥeśeb. In nearby Pharbaetus (Hurbeiṭ) there is a bull, “lord of Šeṭnew”; another, Merḥew, to Abydos. The calf is worshiped in the XII name of Lower Egypt, “The calf of the god”, Sebennûser, Greek Sebennytos; in Upper Egypt a place near Esnā north of it, bears the name of ‛Egnej” Calf “(Semitic‛ i ǵ l). An important center for the cult of the cow, white according to Strabo, is Afroditopoli; it has the epithets Tepeḥq̂we “The first of the cattle” and Senjetjet-eḥq̂we “The most sublime of the cattle”. In the third name of the Delta there was the sacred cow Śeḫ’etḥûr “She who remembers Hor”; in the 10th, Athparmi, naturally it was called Tkême “The black”. An animal was certainly originally the goddess Śḡsje (Gr. Satis) of the island of Sehel, as shown by the two long horns that it carries on the sides of the crown; the oryx Miḥḡṣje, gave its name to the 16th name of Upper Egypt.

The hare, Wenwe, was worshiped in Hermopolis Magna, perhaps alongside the cynocephalus god identified with the god Thout. The sacred scorpion goes by the name Śerqet-ḥetew “That makes the throat breathe”, later worshiped in Iseum in the Delta and in Pselchis “the sanctuary of Sérqe” in Nubia (Dakkah). The asp, Wa’ṣôje “The green” was worshiped in Ṭep (Buto), near the capital of the prehistoric kingdom of Lower Egypt; we also find it in the eastern Delta at Jéme (Nebeše) with the name Jemteje “That of Jéme”; with that of Qerḥe, perhaps “Genius”, at Pithom in the VIII name of Lower Egypt. The frog, Ḥeqe, is venerated in Antinoe and also in Abydos. There is little news for the fish cult. In Mende the dolphin was the goddess Ḥat-meḥjeje “The first of the fish”, in the classical age the mormyrus is sacred to Oxyrinus (el-Báhasā), a species of barbio (Cyprinus lepidotus) in Lepidopoli, the perch (Perca nilotica) in Esnā, the phagrus in Aswan whence Phagroriopolis, the torpedo in Elefantina. Finally, we will cite the animal image of Sêth about which the Egyptians themselves lacked precise information. Among the many identifications, the most suitable is the okapi, found by Johnston in the Congolese forests. The main seat of the cult is Ombos (Typhonia) near Qūṣ, hence its name Ombita.

Egypt Religion 3