In ancient times, men do not appear to have received divine honors. The cult of dead kings itself is not true divinization. Already alive he is the “good god”, but this expression remains a formula of respect, it does not raise him to the altars, not even when he is thought of as a carnal son of the Sun. Someone could later be made god by his virtues, as happened to Imḥotep, architect of king Ṣośer, of Amenḥq̂tpe, son of Ḥa’pew priest of the end of the XVIII dynasty, and of a certain Teô. Personification of the dwarf is certainly the god Bês.
As for the entities that present an ideal form, a first group includes the personifications of abstractions or complexes of feelings. One of the main ones is Righteousness, Mee, of which the supreme judge is a priest. We don’t know why, it is sometimes considered to be double. Wisdom and the divine word are also personified. The first is called Śje ‘”Knowledge” and is placed to the right of Rîe with the book of the god in hand. The word Ḥewej “Order” (Heb. Ḥ wj “to announce”), is that which evoked things from primitive chaos; it too is near the Sun. Divinity is also Magic, Ḥîke ‘, and has priests among doctors. We have a god Śôneb “Health”, Wṣḡj “Health”; a god and goddess Death, Môwet and Mewte; Jô’er “Sight”, Śôṣem “Hearing”, also merged into one Jô’er-śôṣem; more gods-abundance Ṣef’ew, Ba‛ḥew, ‘hegeb; a food-god Ḥq̂w (sem. ḥ wy, ḥ yy “to live”). Another entity related to food is the Ko ‘”Food” (sem.’ Kl “to eat”). A theological text relating to the origins of the world makes him create abundance and food; in passages of the texts of the pyramids the Ko ‘is related to the eating of the deceased. A head cook boasts that he has fed the king’s “living Ko ‘” and a god orders a queen to be fed along with her Ko’. The priest who nourishes a dead person is called the “Slave of the Ko ‘” and already in the early days the prayer of the offerings is pronounced for the Ko’. Life is somewhat dependent on it; feeding the Ko ‘, the individual is fed. Fate is also a god, Šq̂’jew “He who establishes”, and has priests. It is connected with the goddess of ranching Rnêne, who represents both wealth and good luck. For the etymology cannot be separated from the goddess Rnenwûṭe, presiding over the harvest and therefore also the granaries, the foods, the clothes that depend on it. It has the shape of a snake. Fertility is the goddess Méwje “Seed”; fertility, the goddess Neḫbéwe. The wheat-god is called Néper and he also has a companion, Nápre. The press of oil and wine is personified in Šĕĕzmew; yarns have their goddess, Te’je. The good catch of fishing or hunting is the god Ḥe’bew; the god of the toilet, represented by a beard or a bag on top of a stick, is Ṭew’éwej “Early riser”, nor does he lack priests. The wheat-god is called Néper and he also has a companion, Nápre. The press of oil and wine is personified in Šĕĕzmew; yarns have their goddess, Te’je. The good catch of fishing or hunting is the god Ḥe’bew; the god of the toilet, represented by a beard or a bag on top of a stick, is Ṭew’éwej “Early riser”, nor does he lack priests.
According to Ezinesports, a second group can be formed by the personifications of time and place. The year, the three seasons, the twelve months, the hours are as many divinities. Also in the morning, Ṭew’éje, is a goddess who gives birth to the stars and is the daughter of the sky-goddess. The west, connected with the dead, is goddess, Jemne, often described as “good”; the mention of Je’be “East” is rarer. Śôḫe “Campagna” is the mother of the aforementioned hunting god. The desert, Ḥe ‘, naturally dominates the West where in particular it is found; they adore it in the VII nomo of Lower Egypt and in Asyūṭ, where the caravans try to propitiate it before starting the dangerous crossing. In the Thebes empire she is goddess with the names Wq̂’śe-nḫq̂tte “Thebes will remain victorious” and Oppe “Gineceo” referring to the temple of Luxor. Perhaps related to place is the goddess Jewtŏś-‛a’jq̂ś, called north of Heliopolis. Even the necropolis and mountain peaks are deified.
In the third group are placed the personifications of the cosmic elements. The earth represents a man, Gêbb, on whose back plants grow. Perhaps the god Ptah has a similar value; certainly, in its Ti-sûnen form “elevated Earth” is that which emerged from the primordial ocean. The sky is believed to be a metal ceiling, Bḡ’jej, from which the stars hang; four forked supports or four mountains, later personified by four women, support him at the four cardinal points. She is also a woman resting her hands and feet on the ground, her body arched, her head towards the west; has the name Pĕ, which can say “Elevation” (see sem. wpj “rise above”); the other, Nûte, is of unknown significance.