Egypt Religion Part VI

It is therefore clear that, while retaining the form, the substance of things has already changed, at least for certain social classes. We are anthropomorphism. The animal, the plant, the fetish (which is god in itself) are explained either as a form that the god likes to assume, or as something mythically related to him. For the stone-fetish of Heliopolis it is said that the sun-god came out of it. The sycamores, like the southern one in Heliopolis, become the seats of the celestial goddesses Hathor and Nûte; the young bull Mnevis is “Repetition of Rîe”, Apis instead “Repetition of Ptah”; the sacred cows are identified with Hathor, therefore the sky is conceived as a cow on which the sun sails and the stars are quilted; the palm is the god Thout; the ichneumon, the heliopolitan god Atum; the falcon, the cat, the lion, the ram are the sun god; the oxyrinus, the crocodile, the hippopotamus, the pig, the donkey, the god Seth; etc. This promotes a broad syncretism: the deities associate, exchange epithets and attributes, merge. In Ieraconpoli the warlike falcon Hor merges with the sun-god worshiped in Edfu a disc with the ureus: the falcon takes the disc on his head and identified with the sun becomes Ḥar-aḥte “Hor of the horizon”; the god of Edfu takes the wings of the hawk with which he now flies in the sky and becomes “Ḥür of Edfu” or “That of Edfu, the high god, with variegated feathers, the lord of the Place-of-harpoon (temple in Edfu) “. The snake goddess Buto, assimilated to the crown of Lower Egypt, it is confused with the vulture goddess Neḫbîje, assimilated to the crown of Upper Egypt, they become either two snakes, or two vultures, or two crowns. The press-god and the column-god, depicted as lions and lionesses, become various female deities.

According to Harvardshoes, the synthesis also occurs between myths. There is no doubt that that of Osiris is of solar origin. The name Usire (eg. W ś jrT) means for K. Sethe something like “Joy of the eye”. It was said of his death that he was killed (n ṭ j, sem. Ndw) in the place called “The two gazelles” or Neṭie “Place of the slaughter”; according to another version that he drowned or was drowned (mhj). In a hymn to the sun in the Pyramid texts, netej “shot down” is a solar epithet, and that it relates to sunset is said in Pir. 209: “sunsets with Rîe as a diver (ś nk) with Neṭej “. In chapter 217 of the same texts, śenkew” Place of immersion “is found in antithesis with ‘aḫe, the point of sunrise; śenkew is also an epithet of the otherworldly sun. The wife of the god is Ise (eg.. j ś.t, NS. ῏Ισις) which means “seat” and personifies the celestial residence, not the throne as it has been supposed. Her attributes in the texts of the Pyramids (1153-1154): “She who created the gods”, “She who created the gods, created Hor, created Thout” that is, the stars, the sun, the moon, are suitable only for a goddess- sky. The primitive core of the legend consisted of this: at sunset in the western desert the god found death. His wife searches for it, makes it land if drowned, picks it up if shot down, revives it. The passion of the god who rises every day becomes the certainty of life for men who die. Almost certainly the god belongs to Upper Egypt: he has never abandoned the long crown that the princes of the region wear on their heads; in any case from the beginning of the predynastic was worshiped there because in the necropolis the dead man is turned with his face to the west. There he came into contact with Hor and Seth who had no bearing on him. The god of Hieraconpolis and that of Ombos had been enemies because of the struggle fought between the two cities. The first remained the winner, her sovereign, who was believed to embody the falcon, now also impersonated the okapi and in the protocol, under the primitive title “Falcone N.” he added another, “Ḥûr-Sêth” or “Ḥûr Ombita”, or “The two masters” which stated the new combination. Thus associated the two enemies, they became co-patrons of the kingdom. But in popular mythology, perhaps because the memories of the struggles are still fresh, Seth was considered a god of evil. Thus he also entered the Osirian legend. While before he was the brother of Hor, he became its paternal uncle, brother of Osiris; he was credited with killing this one and persecuting that one. Meanwhile, the falcon Hor, mutated into a sun, had found a home in a celestial castle, personified in a goddess, Hathor; of her, having become heaven, they also said he was a son. As the sun he was attracted to the Osirian myth, which underwent a strong variation: his father went to preside over the kingdom of the dead, Hor was the new sun. He was brought to Heliopolis by the southern conquerors, who after some hesitation declared him son of Atum and in their first cosmogony placed him in the queue: “… Gêbb, Nute, Osiris, Isis, Seth, Hor”. But, god of the monarch, he couldn’t stay there. To Seth he gave himself as companion Neith di Sais, then Nebtḥô “Lady of the Castle” who, if not an epithet of the previous one, he is a duplicate of Isis; and Hor was assimilated to the sun.

During the first two dynasties in Heliopolis a new personification of the sun Rî‛e (eg. R ‛ j “Resplendent”. This Rı‛e turns into a real pharaoh, with his own court made up of gods, ministers, ambassadors, scribes. In his castle, quarrels are heard and justice is done, which is the supreme aspiration of the Egyptian people. Even the dead enjoyed the benefits of this well-organized kingdom in heaven. Apparently, the land was considered to be floating on the ocean, Nûn, from which it had emerged and to which some connected the Nile. Above, stretched a sky, Pe, with provinces, cities, fields, lakes, canals; living men were kept away from inaccessible doors. The sun traveled its state in a ship of 770 cubits, which welcomed the retinue, the crew, the pilot. In the evening he went down to another world.

Egypt Religion 6