The Egyptian mythology meets many myths, legends and stories that were part of the religious imagery in ancient Egypt until the arrival of Christianity.
Remember that in ancient times the Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, that is, the worship of various gods that usually occurred in the temples dedicated to them.
The widespread legends had as their themes the origin of the world, nature, men and gods. They explained phenomena still unknown to science and were therefore of great importance for the construction of the Egyptian imagination.
The Egyptian gods had human characteristics, many of which had powers of transformation.
Thus, zoomorphism (animal forms) or anthropomorphism (animal and man forms) are two concepts that characterized the Egyptian gods.
The gods or cosmic principles were called Neteru which were divided into:
They are the most important gods which are associated with the creation myth (origin of the universe):
- Nun(Nu or Ny): symbolized the water or cosmic liquid that gave rise to the universe.
- Tuna(Ra-Tuna, Tem, Temu, Tum and Atem): represents the transformation of Nun, being considered the one that gave rise to the explosion of the universe (similar to Bing Bang) and that generated the various celestial bodies, thus separating the sky. and the earth.
- Amon(or Amun): Mut’s wife, he is considered the king of the gods.
- Aton(Aton or Aten): Related to the sun, he was the god of atomism that was related to the solar disk.
- Ra(or Re): God of creation, being one of the chief gods of Egypt.
- Ka: mystical force that represented the soul of gods and men.
- Ptah: husband of Sekhmet and Bastet, represented the creator and protector god of the city of Memphis. Moreover, he was considered a god of artisans and architects.
- Hu: represented the word of creation of the universe.
- Shu: son of Tuna and god of air.
- Tefnut: son of Tuna and goddess of moisture.
- Geb: son of brothers Shu and Tefnut, Geb is of the god of the earth.
- Nut: daughter of brothers Shu and Tefnut, Nut is the goddess of heaven.
First Generation Neterus:
- Osiris: eldest son of the Geb and Nut couple, Osiris was the first pharaoh of Egypt murdered by his brother Set becoming judge of the dead in the underworld.
- Isis: sister-wife of Osiris and daughter of Geb and Nur, is goddess of love, motherhood, fertility and magic. She is protective of nature and considered a model of mother and wife.
- Seth(or Set): God of storm, chaos and violence. It was he who killed his brother Osiris.
- Nephthys(or Nephthys): Seth and Osiris’ sister-wife and very similar to her sister Isis, being considered another mother goddess in Egyptian mythology.
Second Generation Neterus:
- Horus: son of Osiris and Isis, Horus is the sky god who killed his uncle Seth for revenge.
- Hator: wife of Horus, goddess of feasts, wine and joy. She is considered guardian of women and protector of lovers.
- Tot(or Thoth): God of wisdom.
- Maat: wife of Toth, goddess of justice, truth and order.
- Anubis: son of Osiris and Nephthys, Anubis is the god of the dead and the underworld, he was the one who guided the dead after their death.
- Anuket(or Anukis): fertility goddess which was related to water.
- Bastet: daughter of Maat, is the goddess of fertility and childbirth, protector of women.
- Sokar(Seker or Sokaris): Related to death, he was a funerary god.
- Sekhmet: Ra’s daughter and therefore reflects the destructive aspect of the sun.