Large parts of Djibouti consist of the stone desert. The bedrock consists of lava and volcanic ridges, which in some places rise above 1500 m. At its peak, Moussa Ali Terara reaches the border with Ethiopia and Eritrea by 2021 meters.
Mistakes along the Red Sea have created declines where the Hanlé plains and the salt lakes of Alol and Assal are located. Assal is located approx. 155 m lower than the sea surface. The coast is deeply cut by the Gulf of Tadjoura.
Lake Abbey in the west, on the border between Djibouti and Ethiopia, is known for its rich bird life (flamingo, pelican, ibis).
Desert climate with extreme heat. The climate is more oppressive on the coast than inland due to high humidity. The capital Djibouti has an average annual temperature of 30 °C; the coldest month is January with 25 °C in the mean (daily maximum 29 C°), the warmest month is July with 37 °C (daily maximum 43 C°). Large parts of the country lie in the rain shadow and receive little rainfall. Annual rainfall is approx. 125 mm on the coast and up to 500 mm in the mountains. Most of the precipitation falls during the period October-April. The country is periodically affected by drought, sometimes even floods.
Plant and Wildlife in Djibouti
The vegetation consists mostly of thorn bushes and desert scrub, except for small areas with forests at some elevation. Along the rivers, dumps grow, and along the coast are stretches of mangrove swamps.
Wildlife includes jackal, antelope and gazelle.