History of the Ivory Coast
The penetration of Europeans into Côte d’Ivoire began in con. 15th c. In the 1630s the first French colonists appeared here, and at the beginning. 18th century strongholds began to be created for penetration into the interior of the country, which happened in the end. 1880s It is from the horse. 19th century Côte d’Ivoire became a colony of France, and from 1895 became part of French West Africa. In October 1946, the country received the status of “overseas territory”, and in December 1958 – autonomy within the French Community. On August 7, 1960, Côte d’Ivoire was officially proclaimed an independent state, the leadership of which from the first day of independence until the death of December 7, 1993 was carried out by F. Houphouet-Boigny, who was elected president of the country 7 times. Check cancermatters for political system of Ivory Coast.
In accordance with the Constitution of 1960, a presidential form of government was established in Côte d’Ivoire. The Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire was the only and ruling party in the country, although the Constitution proclaimed the freedom to organize and operate political parties and groups. A one-party system existed in Côte d’Ivoire until May 1990, when, under pressure from public forces, the government was forced to introduce a multi-party system. In August 1993, the National Assembly adopted a law on political parties and organizations that regulates the procedure for their creation, principles of operation and conditions for dissolution. K ser. 1990s more than 50 parties were already active in the country, the largest and most influential among which were the Ivorian Popular Front (FNP), the Ivorian Workers’ Party (IPT) and the United Republicans (OR),
A characteristic feature of the development of Côte d’Ivoire in 1960–99 was the political stability and predictability of the existing regime.
After the death of Houphouet-Boigny, A.K. Bedier, who was elected president of Côte d’Ivoire in 1995, became the interim head of state. Having come to power, Bedier continued the general strategic course of his predecessor. The first serious disagreements between the ruling elite and the opposition emerged after Bedier initiated amendments to the Constitution, significantly limiting the possibilities of his potential competitors in the upcoming elections. The opposition regarded the new amendments as a kind of constitutional coup. The protest of the opposition parties resulted in mass demonstrations in which thousands of people took part and which were accompanied by clashes with the police (September 1998).
The real contender for the presidency was A.D. Ouattara, who was prime minister in 1990-93 and nominated by the United Republicans as a presidential candidate in the 2000 elections. did not allow him to participate in the elections. In October 1999, political tensions intensified in the capital, mass demonstrations took place in the streets in support of Ouattara, and arrests of activists began. A wave of protest swept Abidjan and spread to other cities of the republic. The local performance of the army forces, caused by the delay in the payment of their salaries, resulted in a rebellion, which led to a coup d’état and a change of power in the country. Retired General R. Gay, who led the performance of the army, announced the suspension of the Constitution, the removal of the incumbent president, dissolution of the government and parliament. At the same time, the National Committee of Public Safety (NCSP) was created, headed by General Gay.
State structure and political system of Côte d’Ivoire
In accordance with the current Constitution of 2000, Côte d’Ivoire is a republic. The head of state is the president. Elected by universal direct and secret ballot for a term of 5 years and may be re-elected for one term. Legislative power is exercised by a unicameral parliament – the National Assembly (225 deputies elected by direct and secret universal suffrage for a term of 5 years; in December 2000 – January 2001, the majority of seats in parliament – 96 and 94 – received respectively the Ivorian Popular Front and the Democratic Party of Côte d’ Ivoire). Executive power belongs to the president and the government.
Administratively, the country is divided into 18 regions, which include 57 departments.
The main political parties of the country: Ivorian Popular Front (INF) – founded in 1983, until May 1990 was in an illegal position; Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire (DPKI) – founded in 1946; Ivorian Workers’ Party (IPT) – legalized in May 1990; Republican Rally (OR) – arose in 1994 as a result of a split in the Democratic Party; Union for Democracy and Peace of Côte d’Ivoire (UDMKI) – formed in 2001 as a result of a split in the Democratic Party.
The national trade union movement is headed by the General Union of Workers of Côte d’Ivoire, founded in 1962. Among its ranks are St. 100 thousand members. Secretary General – A. Niamkey.
The country’s armed forces are 13,900 people: Ground forces 5800, Navy – approx. 900, Air Force – 700, Presidential Guard – 1100, Gendarmerie – 4400 (2001). In addition, there is a militia (1500 people) and 12 thousand reservists. Since December 2001, compulsory military service has been introduced in the country. French military presence is maintained.
The Republic of Côte d’Ivoire has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established between the USSR and the Republic of the Ivory Coast – BSK – in January 1967, in May 1969 the BSK government unilaterally announced the severance of diplomatic relations with the USSR, on February 20, 1986 diplomatic relations were restored).