History of Niger
In the Middle Ages, the early feudal states of Songhay, Kanem-Bornu and Gobir existed on the territory of modern Niger. In the 19th century part of Niger became part of the state of Sokoto. The beginning of French colonization dates back to the 2nd floor. 19th century Since 1904 Niger has been a colony of France. In 1922, Niger was included in French West Africa, and on December 18, 1958, it received the status of an autonomous republic within the French Community. On August 3, 1960, Niger was proclaimed an independent republic, the only and ruling party of which was the Niger Progressive Party (NPP), which led the national liberation movement after World War II. Its general secretary, A. Diori, became the first president of an independent Niger. The one-party system existed until 1974, when a military coup took place, as a result of which power was transferred to the Supreme Military Council (headed by Colonel S. Kunche), which dissolved the National Assembly, suspended the Constitution and banned the activities of political parties. After the death of Kunche in November 1987, Colonel A. Saibu took the presidency. In September 1989, after the adoption of the new Constitution, the Supreme Military Council was replaced by the Supreme Council of National Orientation (VSNO), elected in May 1989 at the founding congress of the National Movement for Social Development, which became the only and ruling party in the country. In December 1989, the chairman of the VSNO Saibu was officially elected president of the country and led the work of the government. At the same time, elections were held for the National Assembly, which had been absent from the country for 15 years. In March 1991, under public pressure, the authorities decided to introduce a multi-party system. The National Conference (1991) of all political and social forces declared 1991-92 a period of transition from a military regime to democracy.
In December 1992, a national referendum approved the Constitution and approved the multi-party system as the fundamental principle of organizing the country’s internal political structure. Parliamentary and presidential elections (February-March 1993) were held on a multi-party basis and led to the victory of the Union of the Forces of Change (united 6 parties); the leader of the party Democratic and Social Convention – “Rahama” – M. Usmanu became the president of the country. The aggravation of the internal political situation in Niger in the 2nd half. 1994 caused a split in the ranks of the Union of Forces of Change and led to the loss of parliamentary support by the president. Early parliamentary elections brought victory to the opposition. The confrontation between the president and the opposition, parliament and government ended on January 27, 1996 with a military coup, power passed to the National Salvation Council (SNS), headed by Colonel I.M. Barre. The activity of the Constitution of 1992 was suspended, the parties were banned, the parliament was dissolved. The SNA formed a civil government on a multi-party basis, in May 1996 held a referendum on a new Constitution, and in July 1996 presidential elections were held, in which Barre won. The military coup on April 9, 1999 again made adjustments to the socio-political life of the country: the National Assembly and the government were once again dissolved, and the Constitution was suspended. The established Council of National Reconciliation (CNR) took over the legislative and executive functions for a prescribed transitional period and appointed Major D. M. Vanke as head of state and government. In July 1999 a referendum approved a new constitution, and in October-November 1999 presidential and parliamentary elections were held. M. Tanja was elected President.
State structure and political system of Niger
In accordance with the Constitution, approved by referendum on July 18, 1999, Niger is a republic headed by a president elected by universal direct and secret suffrage for a term of 5 years. Legislative power belongs to the unicameral parliament – the National Assembly (86 deputies elected by universal direct and secret suffrage for 5 years). Executive power is exercised by the government headed by the president. The president appoints the prime minister, candidates for this post are nominated by parliament. Administrative division – 7 departments and the metropolitan municipal district. The largest cities (thousand people) are Niamey, Zinder (185.1), Maradi (172.9), Tahoua (87.7). Active and visible in the political arena approx. 15 parties: National Movement for a Development Society – Nassara (NDOR-Nassara), established in 1988, until 1991 it was called the National Movement for Society and Development, in 1988-90 it was the only and legal party in the country; Democratic and Social Convention (DSC), established in 1991; Party of Nigeria for Democracy and Socialism – Taraya (PPDS-Taraiya); Party for National Union and Development – Salama (PNSR – Salama); Union of Democratic and Progressive Patriots – Shamuva (SDPP-Shamuva). The trade union movement is led by the Niger Workers’ Union (founded in 1960, has 37 branch unions, 28,000 members) and the Niger Free Trade Union Workers’ Confederation (founded in 1993, includes 4 branch trade unions). The country’s armed forces number 7500 people. (including army units – 5500, air force – 200, gendarmerie – 1800), republican guard – 2500 and police – 1500. Check computerminus for political system of Niger.
Science and culture of Niger
Niger has introduced eight years of free compulsory education for children between the ages of 7 and 15. Since 1973, the University of Niamey has been operating in Niamey. Abdu Mumuni Diop, since 1987 in Sai – Islamic University of West Africa.