By the time of the colonization of Africa by European countries in South Sudan, there were no state entities in the modern sense. The Arabs also failed to integrate this region over the centuries. Some progress occurred under the Ottoman rule of Egypt, when in 1820 – 1821 dependent on Ports Muhammad Ali’s regime began an active colonization of the region.
During the existence of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1898-1955), Great Britain tried to limit Islamic and Arab influence on South Sudan by introducing a separate administration of the North and South of Sudan, respectively, and in 1922 even by issuing an Act on the introduction of visas for the Sudanese population in movement between the two regions. Simultaneously, the Christianization of South Sudan was carried out. In 1956, the creation of a unified Sudanese state with its capital in Khartoum was proclaimed, and the dominance of politicians from the North, who tried to Arabize and Islamize the South, was consolidated in the government of the country. Check cancermatters for political system of South Sudan.
The signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972 ended the 17 – year First Civil War ( 1955-1972 ) between the Arab North and the Negro South and granted the South some internal self- government.
After a lull of about a decade, Ja’far Nimeiry, who seized power in a 1969 military coup, resumed the policy of Islamization. Punishments such as stoning, public flogging and amputation were introduced into the criminal legislation of the country, according to Islamic law, after which armed conflict was resumed by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army.
According to American estimates, in the two decades that have passed since the resumption of the armed conflict in southern Sudan, government forces have killed about 2 million civilians. As a result of periodic droughts, famine, lack of fuel, expanding armed confrontation, human rights violations more than 4 million southerners were forced to leave their homes and flee to cities or neighboring countries – Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and the Central African Republic, as well as to Egypt and Israel. Refugees are deprived of the opportunity to work the land or otherwise earn a living, suffer from malnutrition and malnutrition, lack access to education and health care. Years of war has led to a humanitarian catastrophe.
Negotiations between the rebels and the government in 2003-2004 formally ended the 22 – year- old second civil war, although separate armed clashes in a number of southern regions took place later. On January 9, 2005, the Naivasha Agreement was signed in Kenya, giving the region autonomy, and the leader of the South, John Garang, became Vice President of Sudan. South Sudan received the right after 6 years of autonomy to hold a referendum on its independence. Oil revenues during this period were to be, by agreement, divided equally between the central government and leadership of the southern autonomy. This somewhat relieved the tense situation. However, on July 30, 2005 , Garang died in a helicopter crash, and the situation began to heat up again. To resolve the conflict in September 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki- moon visited South Sudan. international the community brought peacekeeping and humanitarian forces into the conflict zone. During a 6 – year period, the southern authorities organized a fairly complete and effective control of their territory by the current Government of South Sudan with all ministries, including the armed forces and law enforcement agencies. By all estimates, the ability and desire of the non-Arab region to live independently was not in doubt. In June 2010, the US announced that it would welcome the emergence of a new state in the event of a positive outcome of the referendum. On the eve of the referendum, on January 4, 2011, Sudanese President Omar al – Bashir during visit to the South Sudanese capital Juba promised to recognize any results of the plebiscite, and even expressed readiness to take part in the official celebrations on the occasion of the formation of a new state, if the southerners vote for independence at the referendum. Also, he promised freedom of movement between the two countries, offered to help the southerners create a secure and stable state, as well as organize an equal union of two states like the European Union, if the South gains independence. As a result of the positive outcome of the referendum, the new state was proclaimed on July 9, 2011.
A number of states have announced that they intend to recognize the independence of South Sudan long before July 9, 2011. The Sudanese government welcomed the results of the referendum and announced that it plans to open an embassy in Juba after the division of the state into two parts, neighboring countries except Chad and initially Eritrean, also welcomed the independence of the region. Already in the first days, several dozen countries recognized South Sudan. Russia also established diplomatic relations with South Sudan on August 22, 2011 .
The UK and several other states have announced plans to open an embassy in South Sudan.
Relations with Sudan, with which there are territorial and economic disputes, remain extremely tense, up to armed conflicts. Armed conflicts broke out between South Sudan and Sudan in the disputed zone of South Kordofan in May – August 2011 and in Heglig in March – April 2012. _
The economy of South Sudan is one of the typical African underdeveloped economies. South Sudan is currently one of the poorest countries in the world, but its economy may have some promise. _ _
The health care system in South Sudan is poorly developed, which, combined with the country ‘s generally low literacy rate, as well as underdeveloped infrastructure, seriously hinders disease control.
Malaria and cholera are common in South Sudan. Despite international intervention, many residents do not have access to qualified medical care, which was one of the reasons for the outbreak of black fever in 2010.
South Sudan has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. _ However, there are no exact data for the country. According to the reports of the special session of the UN General Assembly for 2008 3, 1 % of adults in the country are HIV – infected. This number is practically twice as high as in neighboring Sudan. _ _
A number of rare diseases have been reported in South Sudan that do not occur elsewhere in the region. For example, in the southern part of the country there is a rare disease of unknown nature, called nodding syndrome. It is distributed over a relatively small area and affects mainly children from 5 to 15 years old. As of 2011, the number of cases is several thousand. Neither the cause of the disease nor its cure is known.