State structure and political system of Madagascar
Madagascar is a parliamentary republic. The Constitution is in force in 1992 (as amended in 1998). Administratively, the country is divided into 6 autonomous provinces. The largest cities are Antananarivo, Antsirabe, Tuamasina, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toliara, Antseranana. The head of state – the president, who is also the commander-in-chief of the country’s armed forces, is elected by direct universal suffrage for a period of 5 years and can be re-elected one more time. Legislative power belongs to a bicameral parliament, consisting of the Senate (30 senators are appointed by the president, 60 are elected by an electoral college from territorial associations for 4 years; 1/2 of the senators are renewed every two years) and the National Assembly (150 deputies are elected by direct and secret universal suffrage for 5 years). ). Executive power is exercised by the government and the prime minister, appointed by the President from candidates proposed by Parliament. The government is formed by the prime minister and approved by the president. Parliamentary elections were held on March 18, 2001. Chairman of the National Assembly – A. Andrianarisua. The Cabinet of Ministers is headed by J. Silla. Check cancermatters for political system of Madagascar.
In March 1990, a multi-party system was introduced in the country. Works approx. 120 political parties and only 9 of them are represented in parliament: Vanguard for the Renewal of Madagascar (AREMA, founded in 1993 instead of the Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution, chairman D. Ratsiraka), Wundzi (founded in 1973), Movement for the Progress of Madagascar (created in 1972), Viable Forces Committee (founded in 1991, unites 16 parties), Madagascar National Independence Movement (created in 1958), Madagascar Independence Congress Party (active since 1958), United for Social Democracy (founded in 1993), Madagascar Independence Congress Party – Update (established in 1989), Fihaonana (founded in 1990).
The trade union movement is headed by the Federation of Trade Unions of the Workers of Madagascar, which unites more than 60,000 members in its ranks. It was founded in 1956 and chaired by D. Ralambutakhina.
The armed forces number 21 thousand people, incl. Air Force – 500, Navy – 500. Gendarmerie 7.5 thousand people.
Madagascar has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on September 29, 1972).
Economy of Madagascar
Madagascar belongs to the group of least developed countries in the world. GDP $4.6 billion, or $260 per capita (2001). The average annual GDP growth rate in 2000 was 5.4%, in 2001 6.0%. 34% of GDP is formed in agriculture, 14% in industry and 55% in services. Economically active population 8 million people. Inflation 7% (2001).
Agriculture, fishing and forestry are the economic backbone of Madagascar. It’s occupied here. 80% of the economically active population of the country and products are created that provide up to 70% of foreign exchange earnings. Export crops such as cloves, vanilla, pepper, coffee (55,000 tons) are grown; rice (2558 thousand tons), corn (176 thousand tons), cassava (2418 thousand tons), beans, bananas (260 thousand tons) are of food importance (2000-02). Sugarcane (2160 thousand tons), cotton, tobacco (4 thousand tons) are also cultivated. Cattle (10 331 thousand heads), pigs (1662 thousand), sheep (760 thousand), goats (1330 thousand) are bred. The catch of fish and harvesting of seafood is 1130 thousand tons per year. Wood harvesting over 10 million m3.
Industry is underdeveloped. It is represented by textile production, enterprises for the processing of agricultural raw materials, a cement plant, oil refining, pulp and paper enterprises, and car assembly. Graphite (14,000 tons), chromites (140,000 tons), and mica are being mined.
The total length of railways is 893 km, roads 49,837 km, incl. 5781 km paved. The major ports are Tuamasina, Mahajanga, Antseran-na, Tuliara, and Taulanaru. In 2002, the merchant fleet consisted of 15 ships. There were 130 airports, incl. 29 international class.
Foreign trade turnover (mln USD) 1599: exports 680 (cloves, vanilla, sugar, coffee, shellfish, cotton products, chromite, oil products); imports 919 (components, capital-intensive goods, petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs) (2000). Main trading partners: in terms of exports – France (41%), USA (21%), Germany (7%), Japan (4%), Great Britain (1%); imports – France (38%), Hong Kong (10%), China (5%), Singapore (5%), Japan (3%).
State budget (2000, million US dollars): revenues 553, expenses 735. External debt 4.5 billion dollars, deductions on account of its repayment 43.3% of export earnings (2001).
More than 70% of the population lives below the poverty line.
Science and culture of Madagascar
Since 1976, compulsory education has been introduced in Madagascar for children between the ages of 6 and 11. There are public and private schools. In 1961, a university was opened in Antananarivo, with branches in all provinces. The higher education system also includes the National School of Agronomic Sciences, the Higher National School of Electronic Computer Engineering, and the National Institute of Sports. There is a Malagasy Academy of Sciences. E.D. Andriama-lala, A. Andraina, Sh. Ratsarauelin, S. Rabendza and others gained fame in literary work.