State structure and political system of Rwanda
After the victory of the RPF, with the participation of the Republican Democratic Movement, the Social Democratic Party, the Liberal Party and the Christian Democratic Party, he formed a transitional government of national unity and appointed P. Bizimungu (a Hutu representative) as president. In November 1994, a provisional parliament was created – the Transitional National Assembly (70 deputies). In July 1999, the transition period introduced to normalize the internal political situation in the country and prepare the conditions for democratic reforms was extended for another 4 years (until July 2003). In March 2000, President P. Bizimungu resigned, he was replaced in this post by P. Kagame (Tutsi representative, elected on April 17, 2000 at a joint meeting of the government and parliament and re-elected in the presidential elections in August 2003). In May 2003, a new constitution was adopted. Check cancermatters for political system of Rwanda.
Administrative division: 12 prefectures, consisting of communes. The largest cities (thousand people): Kigali, Butare (22), Gisenyi (16), Ruhengeri (13).
Rwandan parties are distinguished by a pronounced ethnic character: the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), founded in 1987, relies on the Tutsi people, came to power in July 1994 as a result of the overthrow of the regime of J. Habyarimana; The Republican Democratic Movement (RDM), founded in 1957, supported by the Hutus, went underground from 1973–91; National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (NRMDR, formerly NRMDR), Hutu Party, founded in 1975, until April 1991 – the only legal party in the country; Christian Democratic Party (CDP), founded in 1990.
The trade union movement in Rwanda is led by the National Trade Union Association of the Workers of Rwanda, founded in 1985.
The armed forces of Rwanda have approx. 40 thousand people, in addition, 7 thousand – the gendarmerie.
Rwanda has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on October 17, 1963).
Economy of Rwanda
Rwanda is one of the least developed countries in the world. GDP $1.7 billion, or $200 per capita (2001). The average annual GDP growth rate is 6.35% (2000-01). GDP structure: agriculture 46%, industry 20%, services 34%. Economically active population 3.6 million people. External debt – 1.3 billion US dollars, deductions on account of its repayment of 11.4% of export earnings (2001). Inflation 5% (2001).
Agriculture is the leading sector of the economy, it employs 90% of the economically active population. Main food crops (2001, thousand tons): sorghum (130), cassava (250), taro (32), corn (78), potatoes (135), beans (120), bananas (2248). Main export crops: coffee (14.6), tea (14.4), pyrethrum. Extensive animal husbandry is developed, which is also export-oriented: skins and leather raw materials are in demand on the world market. The number of cattle – 465 thousand heads, sheep – 270 thousand, goats – 980 thousand, pigs – 80 thousand.
The mining industry is underdeveloped. The main mineral wealth – cassiterite, wolframite, colombo-tantalite – is of export importance. Lake Kivu contains dissolved carbon dioxide and methane. In 2001, 453 thousand tons of tin concentrate, 42 thousand tons of tungsten concentrate, 250 thousand tons of colombo-tantalite were produced and more than 1 million m3 of natural gas was produced.
The manufacturing industry is based on the primary processing of agricultural raw materials: food industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the leather and footwear industry. Cement is produced, paints, furniture, cigarettes, etc.
There is no rail transport in the country. The length of roads is 12 thousand km, incl. 1 thousand km with a hard surface. Navigation is developed on Lake Kivu, there are ports of Cyangugu, Kibue, Gisenyi. There are 4 airports.
One of the most promising sectors of the economy is tourism. There are several national parks in the country, in particular in Kagera, Virunga, where wild animals have been preserved in their natural habitat.
70% of the country’s population lives below the poverty line.
Foreign trade turnover (2001, mln USD): 309; export 61 (coffee, tea, animal skins, tin ores); imports 248 (food, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement, building materials). Main trading partners: in terms of exports – EU countries (56.9%), Pakistan (12.3%), USA (9.2%), China (4.4%), Malaysia (4.4%); imports – Kenya (29.4%), EU countries (28%), USA (10%), India (4.4%), Tanzania (2.2%).
Science and culture of Rwanda
Rwanda has introduced compulsory primary education for children between the ages of 7 and 14. In 1963, the National University of Rwanda was opened (5 faculties) with two departments in Ruhengeri and Butare. The National Pedagogical Institute, the Medical Institute, the Institute of Agronomic Research (has 6 branches) operate in Butare. The Academy of Culture of Rwanda was established in 1971, and the National Institute for Scientific Research, the Research Center for Pharmacology and Traditional Medicine, and the Medical Research Center were opened at the National University.