State structure and political system of Tanzania
Tanzania is a presidential republic. The Constitution is in force in 1977 (as amended in 1984). Check cancermatters for political system of Tanzania.
Administratively, Tanzania is divided into 25 regions: Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, North Pemba, South Pemba, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar City/West.
Largest cities (2003, thousand people): Dar es Salaam, Dodoma (164.5), Mwanza (302.3), Zanzibar and Pemba (257.0), Morogoro (246.5), Mbeya (205 .0), Tanga (203.4).
The highest legislative body is the National Assembly (the legislative body of Zanzibar is the House of Representatives, consisting of 50 directly elected deputies). The supreme body of executive power is the government (in Zanzibar, the cabinet of ministers).
The head of state and government is President Benjamin William Mkapa (President of Zanzibar Amani Abeid Karume is the head of the internal government of Zanzibar and is elected in accordance with the Constitution of the island). The head of the supreme legislative body is Francis Nyalali.
Deputies (274 people) of the National Assembly are elected: 232 – by direct vote, 37 – women appointed by the president, 5 – from the House of Representatives of Zanzibar.
The President appoints the Vice President and Ministers, including the Prime Minister, from among the members of the National Assembly.
Julius Nyerere became the first president of Tanganyika in 1962. Subsequently, he was re-elected in 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980. Under him, the first edition of the country’s Constitution was adopted in 1965, which was subsequently substantially revised in 1977.
In Tanganyika, the regions are headed by regional commissioners appointed by the president. Local self-government bodies are municipal and city councils. Development committees have been set up in the regions to manage economic, social and cultural development.
Tanzania has a multi-party system. Main parties: Revolutionary Party, National Committee for Creation and Reform, United Civil Front, United Democratic Party, Party for Democracy and Development.
Leading business organizations: Organization of the Tanzanian Trade Unions; Organization of development of small industrial enterprises; Sugar Industry Development Corporation; Confederation of Tanzanian Industry; Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of Tanzania.
Public organizations: Union of Tanzanian Workers (500 thousand members in 1991), Workers’ Department of the Revolutionary Party.
Domestic policy is aimed at preventing confrontation between Tanganyika and Zanzibar and keeping Zanzibar within the republic. Emphasis is placed on the development of education (up to 20% of budget allocations).
Tanzania is pursuing a peacekeeping foreign policy in the East African sub-region, acting as a mediator in the settlement of the Burundi and Rwandan conflicts, accepting and hosting numerous refugees on its territory.
Armed forces (1998): 34 thousand people, incl. 30 thousand people – Ground units, 1 thousand people. – Navy and 3 thousand people. — Air Force. Paramilitary formations: 1.4 thousand people. military police and 80 thousand people. people’s militia.
Tanzania has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1961).
Economy of Tanzania
Tanzania is an underdeveloped agricultural country. GDP $22.1 billion. GDP per capita $610 (2001). Economically active population 16,204 thousand people. (1997). Inflation 5% (2001).
Sectoral structure of the economy in terms of contribution to GDP (2000): agriculture – 48%, industry – 17%, services – 35%. Employment: agriculture – 80%, industry and services – 20%.
Electricity generation 2616 million kWh (2000). The main branch of the mining industry is diamond mining (49.1 thousand carats in 1995); Salt is also mined (66.9 thousand tons in 1995), mica, coal, magnesite, and graphite. Oil refining (313 thousand tons of oil products in 1997), cement (604 thousand tons), tobacco (4.7 million cigarettes), textile (42.7 million m of fabrics), woodworking (39 million m3 of wood) and food and flavor industries are developed. production of products from sisal.
The leading branch of agriculture is crop production (1998, thousand tons): cassava (6444), corn (2107), rice (533), sorghum (498), bananas (769) and millet (347), raw sugar (116, 1), cashew nuts (67), coffee (42). Tanzania is a leader in the African region in the production of livestock products. Production (thousand tons, 1997): meat (261), milk (693), hides and skins (51). The fish catch consists of Nile perch, tilapia, tuna and sardines.
The length of railways is 3569 km. The length of the road network is 85 thousand km, including 4.25 thousand km of paved roads and 80.75 thousand km of unpaved roads (2001). The island of Zanzibar has 619 km of roads, including 442 km of paved roads, and on about. Pemba is 363 km long, including 130 km paved.
There are 125 airports and runways. International airports: near Dar es Salaam, in the province of Kilimanjaro and on Zanzibar. Airlines: Air Tanzania Corp, founded in 1977, serves domestic airlines; Air Zanzibar, founded in 1990 to serve tourist routes.
Main ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, Bagamoyo, on Zanzibar and Pemba. Merchant fleet (1998) 56 ships with a total displacement of 46.3 thousand tons.
In 1991, an international telephone network with direct dialing was put into operation. Cellular communications have been in operation since 1994. Communication facilities (1998): radios – 8.8 million, televisions – 103 thousand, telephones – 127 thousand lines, cell phones – 30 thousand subscribers (1999), Internet providers – 6 ( 2000), Internet users – 300 thousand people. (2002).
Trade is represented mainly by the informal sector, which is not amenable to strict statistical accounting. In 1999, approx. 600,000 tourists spending $730 million.
Modern economic and social policy is aimed at the gradual liberalization of the public sector under the guidance of international institutions, and the fight against corruption is being carried out. Tanzania is a recipient country. In 1997, aid amounted to $963 million.
The exchange rate of the national currency is set on the interbank foreign exchange market. Exchange rate control mode – free swimming. Foreign exchange reserves 600 million US dollars (1998). Demand deposits in commercial banks 237.7 billion tanz. shillings, cash in free circulation 307.8 billion tanz. shill.
State budget (2000/01, million USD): revenues 1.01, expenditures 1.38. Public debt $6.8 billion (2000).
In 1991, 51% of the population of Tanzania lived below the poverty line. The poorest 10% of the population account for 3% of income, while the richest 10% of Tanzanians account for 30%.
In 2001, the export volume amounted to 827 million US dollars. Main export partners: Great Britain (22%), India (14.8%), Germany (9.9%), the Netherlands (6.9%). The volume of imports is 1.55 million US dollars. Main import partners: South Africa (11.5%), Japan (9.3%), Great Britain (7%), Australia (6.2%). The main export commodities are cotton, coffee, tea, tobacco, cashew nuts, minerals; imported – machinery and transport equipment, construction equipment, food, oil and oil products.
Science and culture of Tanzania
Primary education is compulsory and free. Education in primary school – 7 years from the age of seven. Secondary education – from the age of 14 and lasts 6 years, including the first four-year cycle and the second two-year cycle. In 1996, the proportion of school-age children who completed primary and secondary school was 42% (primary school – 66%, secondary school – 5%).
Scientific work is carried out by units of the University of Dar es Salaam, museums and regional East African research institutions: the Institute of Medical Research (1949, Mwanza), the Institute of Malaria and Vector-borne Diseases (1949, Tanga), the Marine Fisheries Research Organization (1950, Zanzibar), Institute of Tropical Parasitology (1962, Arusha). Since 1972, their activities have been coordinated by the National Council for Scientific Research. Tanzania has an agricultural university at Morogoro, vocational training centers and technical colleges.
In the areas of Kondoa, Kisesi, Tambala, Mwanza, rock art has been discovered in grottoes (the period of the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic). Among the artistic crafts, the most common are cult wooden and clay sculpture, mask-making, wood carving, weaving, and pottery. After 1964, a national school of painting was formed (artists S. J. Ntiro, V. Macha, F. K. Mzangi, and T. F. Abdulla).
Since 1967 there has been a theater department at the University of Dar es Salaam. In 1968, a traveling troupe was created under the youth organization National Service.
Literature develops in Swahili and English. The first text that has come down to us is Utendi Harekali (between 1711 and 1728). R. Shaaban (1909-62) is the greatest writer of new literature. English-language literature of Tanzania has existed since the beginning. 1960s The main genres are short stories and novels.