Angola is a republic with a parliament elected on the basis of a multi-party system and broad presidential powers. The 1975 Constitution is in force, last revised in 1996. Administratively, it is divided into 18 provinces (Bengu, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Kwandu-Kubangu, North Kwanza, South Kwanza, Kunene, Huambu, Huila, Luanda, North Lunda, South Lunda, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire). The largest cities: Luanda, Lobito, Benguela, Huambo, Namibe. Check cancermatters for political system of Angola.
Head of State and Government, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces – President. In accordance with the constitutional amendments, he is elected in general elections for a 5-year period with the right to re-election for another two terms.
The highest legislative body is the National Assembly, consisting of 220 deputies elected for 4 years in general elections under the proportional representation system. 130 deputies are elected from a national list, 90 deputies – 5 from each of the 18 provinces. The National Assembly meets in session 2 times a year, and in the intervals between sessions, the Standing Committee elected by it operates. President of the National Assembly – R. de Almeida.
The supreme body of executive power is the government, which is headed by the president, who appoints the prime minister and members of the government. The Prime Minister is F. dos Santos.
The most prominent statesman was Agostinho Neto (1922–79), the first president of Angola and a poet.
The provinces have People’s Assemblies elected by the people; they elect executive bodies – commissariats. Because of the civil war, these authorities were changed from elected to government-appointed.
There are more than 120 political parties in the country. The largest of them are: the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the National Union for the Complete Independence of Angola (UNITA), the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), the Social Renewal Party (PRS).
Influential public organizations: National Association of Angolan Workers, Council of Christian Churches of Angola.
Leading business organizations: Angolan Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Luanda Trade Association.
Domestic policy is aimed at reconciliation of the warring parties and at the restoration of the destroyed economy. The most urgent problem is the integration of part of the UNITA military detachments into the Angolan army and the creation of conditions for a peaceful life for those partisans who find themselves outside the armed forces. As part of the reconciliation process, UNITA leaders are appointed to important positions in the central and provincial governments.
In recent years, Angola has pursued a very active foreign policy, providing armed support to one of the warring parties during political crises in the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In exchange for this, Angola sought participation from the allies in joint operations to destroy military bases and camps of UNITA and the Front for the Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave (FLEC, the movement for the separation of the province of Cabinda from Angola) on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In 1999, the strength of the Armed Forces of Angola was 112,500 people, of which the Ground Forces – 100 thousand, the Air Force – 11 thousand, the Navy – 1.5 thousand. In addition, there were paramilitary formations numbering 15 thousand people. It was armed with 200 tanks, 150 combat aircraft and helicopters, artillery and mortars. Army spending in the 2000 budget was $542 million. The armed formations of UNITA, together with detachments of the militia, numbered 85-105 thousand people. They had 155 tanks, mortars, artillery, Stinger missiles.
Angola has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1975).
Science and culture of Angola
Due to the civil war, Angola’s progress in the development of education is not very significant. Under the Constitution, primary education is compulsory and free. After 1975, the Angolan government expanded the network of primary and secondary schools, but St. 42% of the population over the age of 15 cannot read or write.
In Luanda there is A. Neto University with six faculties, where approx. 3000 students. There are also 8 research institutes in Luanda.
There are 6 museums in Angola. The National Museum of Angola has a historical archive. The two largest libraries – National and Municipal – are also located in Luanda.