Egypt is a constitutional state with a republican system of government. Egypt has a Constitution of 1971 (as amended in 1980). The territory of Egypt is divided into 26 governorates (governors). The largest cities: Cairo, Alexandria (3.8 million people), Giza (254 thousand people). Check cancermatters for political system of Egypt.
In accordance with the Constitution, the most important figure in the hierarchy of power in Egypt is the president. He must be born of Egyptian parents, be at least 40 years old. The presidential candidacy is nominated by at least 1/3 of the members of the People’s Assembly, approved by at least 2/3 and elected in a popular referendum. The term of office of the president is 6 years, he can be re-elected for the next term. The president has the right to take emergency measures in the interests of the state, which must be approved by referendum within 60 days.
The President can appoint one or more Vice Presidents, he also appoints all members of the Council of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, and also removes Vice Presidents and Ministers from office. The President has the right to address the people on important issues affecting the supreme interests of the country.
The highest legislative body is the unicameral People’s Assembly (454 deputies). In accordance with the Constitution, Egypt is divided into 222 constituencies, each of which elects two deputies. Ten deputies are appointed by the president. The term of office of Parliament is 5 years.
In exceptional cases, the People’s Assembly may, with a 2/3 vote, authorize the president to govern by decrees for a specified period, but these decrees must be approved at the next session of the assembly.
The next elections were held in December 2000. Most of the seats in parliament were received by representatives of the ruling National Democratic Party of Egypt
Chairman of the National Assembly – Ahmed Fathi Surur.
Chairman of the Advisory Board – Mustafa Kemal Hilmi.
The Prime Minister is Atef Obeid.
Outstanding presidents include the last three presidents of Egypt:
Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-70) headed Egypt in 1956-70. He stood at the origins of the formation and strengthening of the country’s independence. Carried out broad economic and political reforms, strengthened its defense capability. Relations with the USSR were especially developed in the political, economic and military fields. During the reign of Nasser, with the assistance of the USSR, more than 100 industrial, energy and agricultural facilities were built in Egypt. Egypt has gained great prestige in the international arena, and especially in the Arab world, among the developing states. Nasser was one of the founders and leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Anwar Sadat (1918–81) was the president of Egypt in 1970–81. He began to depart from the course of Nasser, initiated the policy of liberalizing the Egyptian economy, activating private enterprise, reorienting the foreign policy course towards cooperation with industrialized countries and, first of all, with the United States. He made an attempt by military means to achieve liberation from the Israeli occupation of the Sinai Peninsula. He went on to develop contacts with Israel, signed the Camp David Accords on reconciliation with Israel, visited Jerusalem and was killed by Islamic extremists.
Mohammed Hosni Mubarak (born May 4, 1928) has led Egypt as president since 1981. During his reign, Egypt made significant progress along the path of limited political reform and economic liberalization. The activities of political parties of various kinds are allowed. In terms of foreign policy, Mubarak took a course towards the development of relations with all countries, corrected the one-sided tilt of his predecessor Sadat. Improved relations with the Arab countries, the USSR. Egypt achieved the complete liberation of the Sinai Peninsula from Israeli occupation, normalized relations with Israel, establishing diplomatic relations with it. Egypt’s position as a leading regional power has strengthened. He takes an active part in efforts to advance a Middle East settlement.
In July 1977, the People’s Assembly passed a law that allowed the creation of political parties for the first time since 1953. The law was adopted in accordance with Article 5 of the Constitution, which provides for a multi-party political system. Main political parties: National Democratic Party (NDP) – the ruling party, founded in 1978 instead of the Arab Socialist Party of Egypt, has 1.5 million members, chairman – President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, Secretary General – Yousef Amin Wali, print organ – newspaper ” Mayu”;
National Progressive Unionist Party (NPP) – unites the left forces of Egypt in its ranks, founded in 1976, chairman – Khaled Mohi ed-Din, printed organ – newspaper Al-Akhali;
Al-Wafd Party – recreated in 1978 as the heir to the former Egyptian Nationalist Party; disbanded in June 1978 and resumed operations in January 1984; chairman – Numan Go-maa, printed organ – newspaper “Al-Wafd”;
Party of Liberals (PL) – established in 1976, until 1990 it was called the Liberal Socialist Party, the chairman is Mustafa Kamel Murad, the print organ is the Al-Ahra newspaper;
Labor Party (PT) – founded in 1978, until 1996 it was called the Socialist Labor Party; chairman – Ibrahim Shukri, printed organ – newspaper “Al-Shaab”;
Al-Umma is a religious party that has been operating since 1983, the general secretary is Ahmed al-Sibahi Awadallah.
In Egypt, there is the Egyptian Labor Federation (ETF), which unites 23 branch trade unions; The ETF was founded in 1957, has 5 million members, is a member of the Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OAPE), the chairman is Mohammed Seyyid Rashid, and the print organ is the Al-Ummal newspaper.
In domestic political terms, President M.H. Mubarak is pursuing a line towards the creation of a society of social harmony. In general, the situation in the country is characterized by stability and is controlled by the authorities. At the same time, in Egypt, the activity of various socio-political forces, represented in the political arena by political parties of the right, left and centrist directions, is high. The authorities are especially concerned about the activities of Islamic organizations. The authorities seek to keep the activity of the Islamists under their control. Thus, the Supreme Mufti of the country is appointed by presidential decree. The country has a Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, consisting of the Chief Sheikh of Al-Azhar (the main Muslim university in Egypt, widely known as an authoritative Muslim educational institution in the Arab and Islamic world) – Chairman, Minister of Waqfs,
The active struggle of political parties manifested itself during the last parliamentary elections in November-December 2000. Most of the seats in the People’s Assembly were won by the ruling PDP, but during the elections there were clashes between opposition supporters and law enforcement forces. Reported cases of vote rigging, destruction of ballots submitted by representatives of Islamic circles, arrest of approx. 100 Islamists. Nevertheless, their representatives, who formally acted as independents, managed to get 17 seats in the People’s Assembly. The activities of some radical Islamic organizations are prohibited.
In the external arena, Egypt stands for the development of relations with all countries. The Egyptian leadership attaches great importance to the activation of ties with the Arab states. The League of Arab States operates in Cairo. For the past 10 years, the post of Arab League Secretary General has been occupied by former ARE foreign ministers (currently Amr Musa).
The military budget is 3 billion US dollars, the number of regular Armed Forces is 443 thousand people, the reserve is 254 thousand people. (2002).
Ground forces 320 thousand people, 4 military districts, 2 headquarters of the PA, 4 tank, 8 mechanized divisions, separate brigades (armored of the Republican Guard, airmobile, airborne, 2 missile, 4 armored, 4 mechanized, 2 infantry, 15 artillery ), a group of commandos.
Air Force – 29 thousand people, 608 combat aircraft, 128 combat helicopters.
Air defense – 75 thousand people, 4 divisions.
Navy – 19 thousand people, 4 submarines, various types of surface ships, 10 helicopters.
Egypt has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1943).