State structure and political system of Eritrea
Eritrea is a unitary state with a transitional government. The 1997 constitution actually confirmed the state structure based on presidential rule, but it does not enter into force until the parliamentary and presidential elections. Check cancermatters for political system of Eritrea.
Since May 1995, the country has been divided into 6 regions: Central Region, Anelba, Southern Red Sea Region, Northern Red Sea Region, Southern Region and Gash-Barka Region. The regions are divided into districts. Large cities (2003, thousand people): Asmara, Assab (56.3), Karen (38), Massawa (30.7), Barentu (15), Dekemhare (10.6).
Under the Constitution, the powers of the legislature were transferred to the Transitional National Assembly (until the election of a new National Assembly). The highest body of legislative power is the National Assembly. The highest body of executive power is the president and the cabinet of ministers. The head of state is President Isaias Afwerki, took office in May 1991, elected by the National Assembly on May 19, 1993. He is also the head of the Transitional National Assembly, head of government and commander in chief.
The judiciary operates on the basis of transitional laws, including pre-independence EPLF laws, revised Ethiopian laws, customs laws, and post-independence laws. Subdivided into village sub-zonal courts of first instance, zonal courts of appeal and zonal courts of first instance, the Supreme Court of Appeal and the High Court of First Instance. The High Court is the court of last resort. For civil cases, customary law, Sharia courts apply. There are military and special courts. In practice, the independence of the judiciary is limited.
Political parties: People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDS), founded in 1970 as NFOE by left-wing members of the FOE and their supporters after its split. NFDS is the only legal political organization, it received its name in 1994. Chairman Isaias Afevorki.
Public organizations: National Confederation of Eritrean Workers (NCER), National Union of Eritrean Women (NUEW), Union of Eritrean Youth and Students (SEMS).
On the eve of independence, Eritrean society remained socially feudal, tribal, multi-ethnic, dual confessional, i.e. quite disjointed. In the first years of independence, under conditions of authoritarian presidential power with a one-party system and a ban on all political activity, socio-political contradictions were driven deep, manifesting themselves in the form of migration of part of the population to other countries and the activities of opposition organizations outside the country. The crisis of inter-elite integration, authoritarianism and interventionist tendencies of political power underlie the unstable situation in the country.
In foreign policy, the Eritrean government in the early years established relations with its neighbors, including Ethiopia, as well as with the United States, with the countries of the Persian Gulf, with Asian countries. But in 1994, Eritrea severed diplomatic relations with Sudan due to ongoing border clashes. The conflict with Yemen in 1995 over Hanish Island was resolved peacefully through the mediation of an international court. In 1996, a border conflict arose between Eritrea and Djibouti. Relations between the countries improved, but in 1998 Djibouti stopped diplomatic relations with Eritrea in connection with the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict. In the military border conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia (1998-2000), the dispute over the accuracy of the borders became only an excuse. Its roots are in the long process of common and separate development of the territories that now make up two independent states,
The armed forces are military formations of the NPOE reorganized into a regular army. Military units: army, navy, air fleet. Every Eritrean (male and female) between the ages of 18 and 40 (with certain exceptions) must, within 18 months. undergo military training and work at national economic facilities. All R. In 1999 (the peak of the conflict with Ethiopia), the army numbered, according to various estimates, 250-300 thousand people. The army is equipped (including heavy artillery and military aviation) with modern weapons. Military spending in GDP 19.8% (2001).
Eritrea has had diplomatic relations with Russia since May 24, 1993.
Science and culture of Eritrea
Compulsory education has been introduced for children between the ages of 7 and 13. Education in public schools is free. There are several private schools. All R. In 1994, there were 600 schools in Eritrea, which is 3 times more than in 1991. By 1999, 31% of the number of children of the corresponding age studied in primary schools (32% of boys and 29% of girls), and in secondary schools only 16% of the corresponding age. Asmara University (education is free) opened in 1967 on the basis of a college founded in the capital in 1958. There is a secondary medical school in Asmara, and there are three-year technical schools in Asmara and Nakfa. In the capital – the National Museum of Eritrea and the public library.
The geographical position of the country, the milestones of its historical development made Eritrea a “bridge” that connected the cultural traditions of Africa and Asia. The music was strongly influenced by the related cultures of the Tigrays and Amhars, and also absorbed elements of the musical traditions of the Mediterranean. In poetry, the kyne genre stands out, developed for chants in churches in the 14th century. The leading role in the performance of music is played by itinerant singers, known as “hamina”. A special place in the musical culture is occupied by singers of the period of the struggle for independence, members of the Resistance. While maintaining the characteristics of the traditional culture of each people, the Eritrean craft is best known for jewelry crafts and weaving colorful plates, trays and other household utensils.