Ethiopia is a federal state consisting of 9 states and governed by the federal government. The 1995 constitution grants autonomy to the states, including the right to secede. States: Tig-rai, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somalia, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harar and the State of the Southern Peoples, as well as two administrative divisions – Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The division was based on ethnic and linguistic principles. The largest cities (2003, thousand people): Addis Ababa, Dy-re-Dawa (214.8), Nazret (166.6), Gondar (146.3), Des-se (126.8), Mekele (126.3), Bahr Dar (125.3), Jimma (115.8), Harer (99.5) and others.
The highest body of legislative power – the Federal Assembly – consists of two chambers. The upper house is the Federation Council, the members of the Council are elected by the state assemblies for a term of 5 years. The lower house is the Council of People’s Representatives (parliament), deputies are elected for 5 years by direct vote. The right to vote is universal, from the age of 18. Check cancermatters for political system of Ethiopia.
The head of state is the president, elected by parliament for a term of 6 years, endowed with representative functions. President Gyrma Wolde-Giorgis, elected by parliament on October 8, 2001. The highest executive body is the government headed by the prime minister. Parliament approves the composition of the government proposed by the prime minister. Prime Minister Meles Zenawi (approved by the National Assembly in August 1995), who also heads the EPRDF. The government was formed on October 16, 2001.
The structure of federal government is reproduced at the regional level. Each state has a head and an executive committee. Federal power structures retain control over regional authorities.
The political pluralism allowed by the transitional government led to the emergence of many political and social organizations, usually on an ethnic basis. In 1991 more than 50 parties and other political organizations emerged. In 1992 – another 30, in 1994 there were already St. 100, but only 49 parties participated in the 1995 elections. Among the most notable parties is the Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian Peoples. The Front includes: the Popular Front for the Liberation of Tigrii, founded in 1975, the leading organization in the EPRDF, the Amharic National Democratic Movement, the Democratic Organization of the Oromo People, the National Democratic Party of Ethiopia, founded by the merger of several parties, mainly ethno-regional. There are more than 10 political organizations in the country claiming national representation, generally in opposition to the government: Ethiopian Alternative Forces Coalition for Peace and Democracy, Ethiopian Democratic Forces Coalition, Ethiopian Opposition Political Organizations Coalition, Oromo Liberation Front, South Ethiopian Peoples’ Democratic Coalition, Unity Democratic Party, Ethiopian Democratic Party Medhin, the Monarchist Party of Moa Ambessa and many others. A number of political organizations, taking irreconcilable positions in relation to the authorities, operate illegally or abroad, some are engaged in armed struggle. There are many organizations seeking to unite the population along national, regional or linguistic lines. some are fighting. There are many organizations seeking to unite the population along national, regional or linguistic lines. some are fighting. There are many organizations seeking to unite the population along national, regional or linguistic lines.
The new political elite, united in the EPRDF, came to power on a wave of opposition to the center. The tendencies towards ethnopolitical demarcation that emerged in the very first year (the ideas of Oromoland, the secession of the Afars, the secession of the ethnic Somalis of the Ogaden, etc.) were a response to the process of imperial centralization of the last centuries. The ethnic federalism of the new government is the logical result of the struggle against the former government, both feudal and totalitarian. However, the long tradition of centralization of power and the absence of traditions of civil society manifested itself in the form of a strict, comprehensive control by the ruling Front (RDFEN) over all state structures, with all the appearance of political pluralism. In addition, the primacy of the rights of an ethnic group over the rights of a citizen is fraught with the danger of excessive politicization of ethno-regional identity to the detriment of the national one. The complexity of the political situation is evidenced by the fact that the ruling party with its main movements absorbed another 45 national parties and groups, but approx. 40 parties and movements are in opposition to it.
The civil war and social conflicts, the ethnic decentralization of the country led to an increase in the number of migrants in cities, especially in the capital. The patriotic upsurge in Ethiopia over the victory in the border war with Eritrea was replaced by increased political and ethno-confessional contradictions. For the first time in the 10 years of EPRDF rule, the differences in its leadership were publicly exposed. Disagreement with the course of Melesa Zenawi was expressed by President Negaso Gydada and Speaker of the Upper House Almaz Mako, who resigned.
The basis of the country’s foreign economic policy is the attraction of investments, the activation of international trade relations and the development of tourism. In foreign policy, Ethiopia is counting on international recognition of the democratic direction of its development, and seeks to participate in peacekeeping missions in the hot spots of the continent. The exception is military conflict relations with Sudan and Eritrea. In the military border conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia (1998-2000), the dispute over the accuracy of the borders was only a pretext. Its reasons are in the centuries-old history of the common and separate development of the territories that now make up two independent states, and in the problems of the internal political and economic development of both countries. In Algiers, on December 12, 2000, through the mediation of the AU, the UN and the USA, the parties signed a peace treaty,
The Ethiopian National Defense Forces include: the army, air force, militia and security forces. Men are drafted into the army from the age of 18. As of June 1993, the armed units of the ERDFEN numbered approx. 100 thousand people In August 1998, the Ethiopian Armed Forces numbered approximately 120 thousand people.
Ethiopia and Russia established official diplomatic relations on February 5, 1898. The revolutionary events of 1917 in Russia interrupted them, but the tradition of cooperation continued to be preserved. On April 21, 1943, diplomatic relations with the USSR were restored. The Russian Federation and the FDRE continue the tradition of friendly interstate ties.