Sudan is a state with a republican form of government of a federal type. Check cancermatters for political system of Sudan. The 1998 Constitution is in force (approved in a referendum). Administratively, Sudan is divided into 26 governorates (states), each headed by a government-appointed governor. The largest cities: Khartoum (combines three cities – Omdurman, Khartoum and North Khartoum), Wad Medani, Atbara, Port Sudan, Juba, Wau, Kassala, El Obeid.
The highest body of legislative power is the National Assembly. The number of deputies is 360. The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers. The President of the National Assembly is Ahmed Ibrahim Taher. The Prime Minister is Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir (President of the Republic).
Famous political figures of Sudan who have held the posts of presidents, prime ministers:
Jaafar Nimeiri – served as the head of the country in 1969-85, has the rank of Marshal of the Armed Forces of Sudan;
Sadiq al-Mahdi – leader of the Al-Umma party, served as prime minister from 1986-89;
Omar Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir – Lieutenant General, leader of Sudan since 1989 (Chairman of the SCRN), President of Sudan since 1993.
Local governments have been given broad powers in the field of legislative and executive power. However, in reality, the federation created in Sudan (decree of 1994) has a nominal character. The system of state administration still retains the rigid character characteristic of the military regime.
The right to create political organizations within the framework of the law is guaranteed by the country’s Constitution of 1998 (after the military coup on June 30, 1989, all political organizations were banned). Registration of parties resumed from January 1999. At the end. 2002 more than 30 parties registered.
Main political parties:
National Congress – ruling party (successor of the National Islamic Front), President O. al-Bashir (President of Sudan), General Secretary Ibrahim Hassan Omar;
Unionist Democratic Party (UDP), founded in 1967, leader Osman al-Mirgani, general secretary Sherif Zeid al-Din al-Hindi;
Al-Umma Islamic Party, founded in 1945, leader Sadiq al-Mahdi, general secretary Omar Nur Ad-Daim;
a number of opposition political parties united in the National Democratic Alliance, headquartered in Asmara (Eritrea), chairman Osman al-Mirghani, secretary general Mubarak al-Mahdi;
The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), leader John Garang de Mabior, was founded in 1983 (an opposition South Sudanese movement that is negotiating with the government of Sudan on a settlement in South Sudan).
The internal political situation in Sudan is characterized by tension. In 1999, the confrontation between O. al-Bashir and the forces of radical Islamists led by H. Turabi escalated. The President announced the dissolution of the parliament, chaired by the leader of the NIF, and declared a state of emergency to stop the speeches of disgruntled Turabi supporters.
In February 2000, the headquarters of the People’s Islamic Conference, located in Khartoum, which united radical fundamentalist organizations in several countries of the Muslim world, was closed. In May 2000, Turabi was removed from his post as General Secretary of the ruling National Congress Party, and in February he was arrested along with a number of supporters.
The authorities were actively working to achieve national reconciliation through dialogue with all political forces both at home and abroad. The Government took the initiative to hold a General Congress of National Dialogue in Khartoum with the participation of representatives of all political forces in the country.
In May 1999, former President J. Nimeiri returned to Sudan after 14 years of emigration, in November 2000 – the leader of the largest opposition party Al-Um-ma Sadiq al-Mahdi, in November 2001 – one of the prominent figures of the opposition National Democratic Alliance, deputy chairman UDP Ahmed Mirghani.
For decades, one of the main destabilizing factors has been the unsettledness of the South Sudan problem. Tension between the Muslim North and the Christian South remains one of the main reasons for the ongoing civil war in the South. From 1983 (since the resumption of armed clashes in southern Sudan) until 2003, approx. 2 million people In the beginning. 2003 between the government of Sudan and the opposing SPLM, led by former Colonel John Garant of the Armed Forces of Sudan, agreements are reached that can serve as the basis for reaching a final settlement of the South Sudan problem.
In foreign policy, Sudan advocates the development of relations with all countries. He declares his commitment to the Charters of the UN, the AU, the Arab League, the OIC.
After the UN Security Council lifted on September 28, 2001, the limited diplomatic sanctions imposed against Sudan in connection with the complaint of Egypt and Ethiopia, accusing Sudan of being involved in an attempt on the life of ARE President H. Mubarak in June 1995 in Addis Ababa, Khartoum is making efforts to normalize relations with neighboring countries. Relations with the USA and Great Britain are being established. Washington is taking steps to assist in resolving the conflict in southern Sudan (a special representative of US President George W. Bush has been appointed on this issue).
In May 1999, Sudan announced its accession to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction. Khartoum has also acceded to all international treaties and agreements on combating terrorism.
The total number of regular Armed Forces is 117 thousand people, paramilitary formations (people’s defense forces) 7 thousand people. Military budget $387 million (2001). Ground forces 112.5 thousand people, Air Force 3 thousand people, Navy 240 people.
Sudan has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on January 5, 1956).