In the Congo Basin there are older, folded and partly transformed and granite-permeated rocks in the high-lying peripheral areas. The oldest Precambrian rocks are crystalline shales and granites. Younger Precambrian deposits are powerful sedimentary strata with moraine conglomerates (trusts). The youngest Precambrian deposits also contain moraine conglomerates. In the province of Katanga (formerly Shaba) in southern Congo, rich copper deposits are found in layers of this age group. In the middle of the basin are younger, flat deposits.
Similarly, the Karroo layers in South Africa are a series of carbon ages for Jurassic with moraine conglomerates and coal layers in the lower part. The very youngest layers are sand deposits of age chalk to the recent. The occurrence of glacial deposits from three different geological periods in a tropical area, such as here, is of great geological interest.
Congo, so to speak, coincides with the Congo basin, which has its lowest areas, approx. 300 masl, close to the lake Mai-Ndombe (Leopold 2s sea). The creek consists largely of wide rivers, swamps and equatorial rainforests. The basin is surrounded by altitude and mountain ranges, in the west and north almost 1000 m high, but in the east up to 5000 m.
The Congo River with its supply rivers is thus one of DR Congo’s (and Africa’s ) most prominent geographical phenomena. Most of the basin is covered by lush, more or less impervious rainforest. Besides the rainforest in Brazil, the rainforest in DR Congo is thus important for the earth’s climate and for the preservation of a rich animal and plant life. The water flow in the Congo River is surpassed only by the Amazon.
The mountain landscape in the east belongs to the westernmost part of the Rift Valley. Near the border with Rwanda are several volcanoes, including the active Nyamuragira (3053 m asl). Along the eastern border are a number of lakes (from north to south): Lake Alberta (formerly Mobutu Sese Seko Lake), Lake Edward, Kivus Lake, Tanganyika and Lake Mwerus.
From the threshold to the west, the country descends towards a small coastal plain; about. 50 km long. The Congo River breaks through this threshold into a ravine of powerful rapids. Together with the Oubangui bee river, the river forms the border between the two Congo states and towards the Central African Republic.
DR Congo has an equatorial climate, but large parts of the Congo basin are shielded by the high plateau edge, and the rainfall is therefore less inland than on the coast. Otherwise, the equatorial rain belt and the country’s central location on the continent will affect the climate. The annual temperature in lower areas is 23-25 ° C, with little difference between the warmest and coolest month. At level approx. 1000 masl the average temperature is approx. 21-ca. 23 ° C and for 1500 m. is 18-20 ° C.
The areas in the north have minimum rainfall, but no actual drying period, December – February. In the south, the least rain falls June – August, as the rain belt has its northernmost position. The southernmost areas have annual precipitation of 800–1200 mm and drying periods May – September. Because of its geographical location on both sides of the equator, this means that the Congo Basin, and thus the Congo River, is supplied with water through rainfall from rainy season in both the summer and winter months.
Plant life in DR Congo
Plant life in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Congo basin has tropical rainforests or large areas with such forests in alternation with secondary grassland. The species diversity is large, with many species on a small area. The trees are often over 50 m high, ebony and mahogany species are common. It is also rich in epiphytic vegetation. with many orchid species. The plateau areas in the south have forest savanna and savanna, in the east there is a separate type of forest savanna, known as “park forest”. At the mouth of the Congo River there is swamp and mangrove vegetation.
Wildlife in DR Congo
Wildlife in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Congo has a very rich fauna, but war and poaching have reduced the population of some large game species, including blunt, to a minimum. Living in the rainforest, among other things. leopard, forest boar, okapi and forest forms of coffee buffalo and elephant. The primate fauna is particularly rich: potto, galagos, numerous maracats, mangabee and colobus monkeys as well as three human monkeys: gorilla, chimpanzee and dwarf chimpanzee. Promise, cheetahs, giraffes, warthogs and antelopes are characteristic animals of the savannah. Hippos, crocodiles and many fish species live in the rivers.
Nearly 1,150 bird species have been observed in Congo, which, alongside Kenya, has Africa’s most species-rich bird fauna. 11 of these are native (endemic). Many species of herons, hawks, eagles, falcons and hornets. Fargerike coraciiformes as Kingfisher, bee-eater and leads are well represented. Of common sparrow birds, mention should be made of howls, paradise flycatchers, weavers, astrilds and the colorful birds.
Cobras, mambas and puff adder are the best known, and most feared, poison snakes.
Giant species of spiders, beetles and butterflies are conspicuous, especially in the rainforest.