State structure and political system of Guinea
Guinea is a unitary, secular, democratic republic of the presidential type. The Constitution of December 23, 1990, as amended in 2001, is in force. Administratively, Guinea is divided into 33 prefectures and 1 special zone – Conakry (2003): Beila, Boffa, Boke, Koya, Dabola, Da-laba, Dingirae, Dubrek, Farana, Forekarya, Fria, Gaval, Gekedu, Kankan, Kervane, Kindia, Kisidugou, Kubia, Kundara, Kurusa, Labe, Leluma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamu, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Sigiri, Te-limele, Tuge, Yomu. The largest cities (thousand people, 2003): Conakry, Nzerekore (120.1), Kankan (112.2), Kindia (106.3).
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral National Assembly (114 deputies). Executive power is exercised by the government headed by the prime minister. The head of state is President Lansana Conte. Check cancermatters for political system of Guinea.
The head of the supreme legislative body is Boubacar Biro Diallo.
The president and members of parliament are elected by direct universal suffrage for terms of 7 and 5 years, respectively. 1/3 of the deputies are elected from single-member constituencies, the rest are appointed from the national list within the proportional representation system. Ministers are appointed by the president.
During the time that President Conte was in power, the ideological liberalization carried out by him contributed to a certain revival of socio-political life in Guinea. 46 political parties were created.
Local self-government bodies: in the provinces – provincial assemblies, whose deputies are elected by general and direct elections for 5 years, they also include deputies of the National Assembly.
A multi-party system has been introduced since 1992. Main parties: Unity and Progress Party (PEP), ruling pro-presidential party; Democratic Party of Guinea for the Democratic Unification of Africa; Union for Progress and Renewal (SPO); Rally of the Guinean People (PUG); Democratic Party of Guinea – Ahmed Sekou Toure; Diam Party.
Leading business organizations: Guinea Chamber of Agriculture, Guinea Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Guinea Chamber of Commerce.
Public organizations: Confederation of Guinean Workers, founded in 1984.
In domestic policy, the Guinean leadership seeks both to achieve an ethnic balance between the three main nationalities (Fulbe, Malinke and Susu), and to consolidate society on a religious basis, using Islam for this purpose.
Foreign policy is subject to the principles and goals of the AU, the UN, the OIC. Guinea is developing relations with countries both in the West and in the East. He takes an active part in solving African problems, in particular in the settlement of conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, as well as in the dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon over the Bokassy Peninsula. Participation in international organizations and forums is used to increase the flow of financial assistance and mitigate the debt burden.
In 1998, there were 8.5 thousand people in the Ground Forces, 800 people in the Air Force, 400 people in the Navy, 1.6 thousand people in the Republican Guard, 1 thousand people in the gendarmerie, in reserve – 7 thousand people Military service is obligatory (conscripts in 1998 – 7.5 thousand people) and lasts 2 years.
Guinea has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1958).
Economy of Guinea
Guinea is an economically underdeveloped agrarian country. GDP $15 billion, GDP per capita $1970 (2001). Economically active population 3 million people. (1999). Inflation 6% (2000).
Sectoral structure of the economy in terms of contribution to GDP (2000,%): agriculture – 24, industry – 38, services – 38. In agriculture (2000) 80% are employed, in industry and services – 20%.
Electricity generation 770 million kWh (2000). The main sectors of the mining industry are the extraction of bauxite (20.0 million tons in 2000), diamonds (44 thousand carats in 1995), gold (6.6 tons in 1998). Manufacturing industry (1995): production of raw sugar (19 thousand tons), alumina (566 thousand tons), palm oil (51 thousand tons), processed fish (11 thousand tons).
In 1997, 5.5 million m3 of commercial timber was harvested. The export of raw wood is prohibited.
The main agricultural crops are paddy rice, cassava, plantains, vegetables, citrus fruits, sugar cane, bananas, peanuts, sweet potatoes, mangoes, pineapples, palm kernels. Cattle, goats, sheep, pigs are raised.
Fish catch per con. 1990s St. 60 thousand tons.
The length of railways is 1086 km. The length of the road network is 30.5 thousand km, including 5033 km of paved roads. Road vehicles in operation (1997, thousand units): cars – 14.1, trucks and vans – 21.
There are 15 airports. Gbessia International Airport in Conakry.
Main ports: Boke, Conakry, Kamsar. Merchant fleet (1998) – 30 ships with a total displacement of 9 thousand tons.
The level of development of the telephone network varies from province to province. Communication facilities: radios – 357 thousand (1997), televisions – 85 thousand (1997), telephones – 37 thousand lines (1998), cell phones – 21,567 subscribers (1998), Internet providers – 4 (2001), Internet users – 15 thousand people. (2002).
In con. 1990s in Guinea visited St. 90 thousand tourists.
Thanks to the restructuring of the economy under the auspices of the IMF (since 1985), macroeconomic indicators have improved significantly. The business activity of private entrepreneurs has increased against the background of the declining role of the public sector. Since 1994, special attention has been paid to legal issues, the deepening of administrative reform. The government has identified as priority sectors: agriculture, education, health care and environmental protection.
The exchange rate of the national currency is set weekly at the currency auction. Course control mode – controlled swimming. Foreign exchange reserves (1997) US$121.63 million. Demand deposits in commercial banks 130.43 bln. fr., money in free circulation – 191.64 billion guards. fr.
State budget for 2000: revenues $395.7 million, expenditures $472.4 million. Public debt $3.6 billion (1999).
Despite the richest natural resource potential and the efforts of the authorities, the income of the vast majority of families in the country does not reach the subsistence level. The poorest 10% of the population account for 3% of income, while the richest 10% of Guineans account for 32%. Wages are among the lowest in the region (pension $15-20).
In 2000, the volume of exports was 694.5, and imports – 555.2 million US dollars. Export (1999,%): USA (17.6), Benelux (14.9), Spain (9.5), France (6.1), Ukraine (6.1), Germany (5.2). Imports (1999,%): France (22.7), China and Hong Kong (11), Benelux (8.7), USA (8.4), Côte d’Ivoire (6.9). The main export commodities are bauxite, alumina, diamonds, gold, citrus and other fruits, and fish; imported – food, chemical products, petroleum products, textiles, machinery and equipment, vehicles, metals.